Universities should pursue innovations to improve students ' educational experience and improve the effectiveness of practices. While academics have access to countless online teaching tools, we know that teaching and learning is not all about technology. One of the key and most critical components of effective education is student participation. They are more eager to learn when they are in higher learning environments, inviting them to think more complex and use their competencies. Supported by educators, students connect, think, and evaluate ideas. In contrast, students in a passive educational environment only pass notes to their notebooks, memorize pieces of information torn from their context, and exhibit a superficial attitude to subjects.
In current university education, the blended learning approach is mostly used. In addition to face-to-face training, students conduct extracurricular activities and follow course topics with the help of technological resources. Blended learning is an approach that has increased its popularity not only in primary and secondary education, but also in higher education institutions. Course materials prepared with this approach provide access to students and active participation of students at a rate that was not previously possible. Another educational model that emerges in the light of a blended learning approach is inverted classes.
Inverted learning (flipped learning or inverted learning) is the model of education on the rise of the last few years, and to date it is mostly practiced on the steps of primary and Secondary Education. The aim of inverted learning is to pre-record the course subjects and present them to the students in a digital environment. In this way, students can learn subjects at their own learning speed and style, and their probability of jumping without understanding important topics is greatly reduced. Students who learn the subjects themselves have the opportunity to practice in the classroom environment. Instructors, on the other hand, offer personalized guidance during individual or group activities conducted in the classroom environment, taking into account students ' learning styles. Similarly, course hours in higher education institutions should focus on the application of knowledge. In this way, instructors can help their students solve problems, think critically, take initiative, etc.21. it can help them gain century competencies more effectively.
Researchers also argue that the inverted learning approach is more pedagogically and psychologically advantageous. Because it allows students to review subjects at their own learning speed and have a certain degree of flexibility as they work from digital sources. The inverted learning approach brings more responsibility to students so that students can work towards gaining competence on a subject. Upside-down learning is a 21-year-old approach to those already involved in the workforce. it is also of great importance because of its potential to gain century competencies.
Contrary to popular belief, switching to inverted classes in university education is not a costly act. The upside-down learning model is one of the most cost-effective ways to provide a student-centered curriculum and reach more students effectively. Emerging technologies provide a dynamic alternative to didactic and passive teaching models that have not changed in universities for many years.
The inverted learning model can be integrated into university classes in five different ways.
Traditional inverted classes: they are inverted classes by classical definition. Students learn course topics by using digital resources before coming to class. During their time in the classroom, they reinforce basic concepts through exercises. Students receive personalized feedback from their instructors during the course, and after the course, they review what they have learned to make the information permanent.
Discussion-oriented inverted classes: instructors share learning materials, such as TED Talks or other instructional videos, with students to lay the groundwork for face-to-face discussion and exchange of ideas in the classroom. Creating a discussion environment in the classroom is very useful for analyzing topics in depth in departments that require discussion skills, such as political science and business.
Evidence-oriented inverted classes: this class model focuses on the process. Instructors share their activities with students by videotaping them step by step. Students review this content at their own learning speed and try to get the result obtained by their instructors from the same activity in the classroom environment, just as in a laboratory experiment.
Group-oriented inverted classes: students are aimed at learning by interacting with others. Students review topics by using video or other digital resources provided by their instructors before the lesson, and reinforce the topic by working in teams in the classroom. This classroom model encourages students to learn from each other. It also requires students to have a tight grasp of subjects so that they can pass information on to their classmates. In this way, they develop both soft skills such as communication and teamwork and better reinforce specific information.
Virtual inverted classes: sometimes flipping the class completely eliminates the need for face-to-face training. In some higher education institutions, instructors share lessons with their students as video material. After that, students are expected to complete online assignments. Through online assignment management platforms, instructors also receive and grade students ' assignments.